英语翻译练*-外刊中英文对照翻译赏析2

发布时间:2021-07-31 08:30:03

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英语翻译练*-外刊中英文对照翻译赏析2
Paul Samuelson 保罗.萨缪尔森

The last of the great general economists died on December 13th, aged 94 12月13日,最后一位经济学通才辞世,享年94岁

“I WAS reborn, born as an economist, at 8.00am on January 2nd 1932, in the Uni versity of Chicago classroom,” wrote Paul Samuelson in a memoir published earlier this month. He became probably the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century. For his work in several branches of the dismal science he be came the first American economics Nobel laureate. Through his bestselling textbook, he introduced millions of people to the subject. And right to the end he kept on mentoring the profession?s brightest stars. “1932年1月2日上午8点,在芝加哥大学的课堂中,我得到了第二次生命——作为经济学家 重生了。 ”本月早些时候出版的保罗.萨缪尔森回忆录中,他如是写道。他成为20世纪下半叶 或许最具影响的经济学家。沉闷如经济学,他在该领域数分支都有著作于世,并因此成为第 一位荣膺诺贝尔奖的美国经济学家。 通过自己的畅销教材中, 他将数以百万计的人们引入了 经济学领域。直至垂暮之年,萨缪尔森仍在谆谆教诲着经济领域中最闪亮的学者。

His actual birth took place almost 17 years earlier in the steel town of Gary, Indian

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a, to a family of upwardly mobile Polish immigrants. His earliest memories—of the recession of 1919-21 and strikebreaking immigrant workers from Mexico, and of the boom and bust that followed—shaped Mr Samuelson?s macroeconomic views throu ghout his life. He approved of massive government spending to help an economy escape from recession when monetary policy can do no more. When the Obama a dministration introduced just that sort of stimulus this year, partly on the advice of Mr Samuelson?s nephew, Larry Summers, who is Mr Obama?s chief economic advi ser, he was quick to approve. 其实, 萨缪尔森在此17年前生于印第安纳州“钢都”加里市的一个波兰移民家庭中, 当时正值 家族兴旺。他儿时经历1919-21年间经济衰退和墨西哥民工客串罢工,以及随后的繁荣萧条 更迭, 而这些早期的记忆对他的宏观经济理论产生了毕生影响。 他赞成如货币政策力不能及, 政府应大幅出资避免经济衰退。今年奥巴马政府引入上述经济刺激,其首席经济顾问,萨缪 尔森的侄子拉里.萨默斯谏言有功,而萨缪尔森毫不含糊,双手赞成。

Though regarded as America?s leading standard-bearer for Keynesian economics, h e called himself a “cafeteria Keynesian”, just picking the bits he liked. His combina tion of Keynesian and classical economic ideas became known as the “neoclassical synthesis”. From his chair at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and in his column in Newsweek, the self-described “dull centrist” became a fierce critic of th e libertarian Chicago School, and especially of Milton Friedman (writer of a rival Ne wsweek column). Markets are not perfect, he believed, and dire warnings from Frie dman, and earlier from Friedrich von Hayek, about the regulation of markets “tells us something about them rather than something about Genghis Khan or Franklin R oosevelt. It is paranoid to warn against inevitable slippery slopes…once individual c ommercial freedoms are in any way infringed upon.” 纵使萨缪尔森被推崇为凯恩斯经济理论的旗手,却自称“自助餐厅凯恩斯主义者” 只挑选自 , 己喜欢的部分。他综合凯恩斯和古典经济思想,成就“新古典综合” 在麻省理工大学的任教 。 期间,在《新闻周刊》的专栏中,他自诩“沉闷中间派”却激烈批判倡导自由主义的芝加哥学 派,尤其是同为《新闻周刊》专栏,而观点对立写手的弥尔顿.弗雷德曼。他认为市场并不 完美, 而弗雷德曼——以及从前弗雷德里希.冯.海因克——的耸人听闻“只能揭示他们心底的 脆弱, 而看不到一丝一毫成吉思汗和罗斯福的身影。 下坡路不可避免……看到个体商业自由 受到侵犯就发出防范警告,纯属偏执抓狂。 ”

As for Mr Samuelson?s friend of 50 years, Alan Greenspan, once chairman of the

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Federal Reserve, “the trouble is that he had been an Ayn Rander”—a devotee of l aissez-faire capitalism. “You can take the boy out of the cult but you can?t take th e cult out of the boy,” Mr Samuelson told the Atlantic this summer. “He actually ha d [an] instruction, probably pinned on the wall: ?Nothing from this office should go f orth which discredits the capitalist system. Greed is good?.” 萨缪尔森曾经评价自己五十年老友——美联储前主席艾伦.格林斯潘: “他就是曾受艾茵.兰德 影响太深,才不慎失足。 ”艾茵.兰德是放任资本主义的忠实拥趸。 “改邪归正易,规避歧途难 呐。 ”萨缪尔森今年夏天接受《大西洋月刊》采访时说, “他还真有个座右铭,还钉在了办公室 墙上,写着: ?轻渎资本主义,一律不准出门。贪婪是好事。 ” ?

The huge sales of Mr Samuelson?s textbook, “Economics”, first published in 1948 and updated every three years, owed much to his lively writing. (The abstract of hi s recent memoir ended with the words: “Boo hoo.”) The book transformed how ec onomics was—and is—taught around the world. If the earlier editions too readily be lieved that an economy could achieve equilibrium, that may have stemmed from th e author?s conviction that mathematics could be a useful tool for economists, and t hat economics had much to learn from physics and the laws of thermodynamics. T oday it is fashionable to argue that economics was led astray by “physics envy”, which blinded it to the subtleties of human behaviour, yet after winning his Nobel p rize in 1970 Mr Samuelson anticipated economists? current interest in biological sys tems by writing several papers on Mendelian dynamics. 1948年,萨缪尔森的课本《经济学》首次出版,此后每三年就进行一次修订,其销量之大, 盖因老人家笔调鲜活。 (他最*出版的回忆录摘要中,便以“呜呼”二字结尾。《经济学》一 ) 书颠覆了经济教学,并对其产生了持久影响。如果说早期版次过于相信经济可以达到均衡, 那大概是因为作者坚信数学可以成为经济学家的有效工具, 经济学可汲物理和热力学定律之 长。今天,许多人认为经济学因“物理嫉妒”才会忽视人类细微行为,从而误入歧途;而197 0年获诺贝尔奖之后,萨缪尔森就孟德尔动量撰写数篇论文,成功预见了今日经济学家对生 物系统的浓厚兴趣。

The inefficient market 低效市场

He was the last of the great general economists, making important contributions on trade, macroeconomics, public finance and consumer behaviour. Yet he decided, at

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around 50, that to remain academically competitive he had to specialise. Perhaps because it was close to his beloved mathematics, the specialist field he chose was financial economics. 他是经济领域最后一位通才, 在贸易、 宏观经济、 财政和消费行为领域均有建树。 年*半百, 萨老却决定为保持学术竞争力,他必须专攻。他选择了金融经济,大概因为这同他挚爱的数 学密不可分。

His work helped lay the foundations for two of the field?s biggest ideas: the efficien t-market hypothesis and options pricing. In 1965 he published a paper explaining th at in well-informed and competitive speculative markets, price movements over time will be essentially random—a concept at the heart of the efficient-market hypothesi s later described in its full majesty by Eugene Fama, whom Mr Samuelson believe d ought to win a Nobel prize. In the 1950s it was Mr Samuelson who had redisco vered the pioneering early work of Louis Bachelier, a French mathematician whose insights would later underpin the Black-Scholes option-pricing model; and it was Mr Samuelson who suggested the assumption, that share prices move according to g eometric Brownian motion, which makes this model workable. Mr Samuelson remai ned close to Robert Merton, who won a Nobel for his work with Fischer Black and Myron Scholes on options pricing. 萨缪尔森的著作奠定了有效市场假说和期权定价这两大经济学观念的基础。1965年,萨老 发表论文,解释在消息灵通的竞争性投机市场中,只要假以时日,价格变动就会变成随机游 走——这是有效市场假说的核心概念;此后,萨老认为应为诺贝尔奖获得者的尤金.法玛对 此概念进行了权威阐述。20世纪50年代,是萨老掸去法国数学家路易.巴舍利耶的先锋性早 期著作尘封,成就了布莱克-斯科尔斯期权定价模型;同样,萨老提出股票价格遵循几何布 朗运动假设,这一期权定价模型才得以运转。长期以来,萨缪尔森同罗伯特.默顿常有往来, 而莫顿因同费希尔.布莱克和迈伦.斯科尔斯在期权定价方面的共同工作,亦获诺贝尔桂冠。

Yet Mr Samuelson also understood that beyond the ivory tower the conditions nece ssary for efficient markets rarely existed; they needed regulating. “To understand ec onomics you need to know not only fundamentals but also its nuances,” Mr Samue lson would explain. “When someone preaches ?Economics in one lesson? I advise: Go back for the second lesson.” The latest crisis (for which he felt some responsib ility, since he had helped develop financial derivatives that company executives did not understand) proved that “free markets do not stabilise themselves. Zero regulati

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ng is vastly suboptimal to rational regulating. Libertarianism is its own worst enem y!” 然而,萨缪尔森同样清楚,走下象牙塔,有效市场的必要条件鲜有存在;市场需要监管。 “要 理解经济学,不能只明白其中的基本原则,还要理解里面的细微差别。 ”萨缪尔森解释道, “有 人说什么?一课经济学? 我看,给我回去再上一课吧。 , ”萨老认为自己对眼下的金融危机责任 不可推卸, 因为他曾经也帮助创造公司高管无法理解的金融衍生品。 而这次金融危机也证明 “自由市场不能自我调控。零监管远远不如合理调控。自由主义最大的敌人,正是自己! ”

Mr Samuelson was happy to be “linked with such Methuselah masters as Verdi” w ho did some of their best work in old age. He was able to do so, not least, becau se of his interest in evidence-based medicine. For decades he read the New Engla nd Journal of Medicine, and—noting a weakness in his male ancestors—he was an early adopter of cholesterol-reducing statin pills, as well as skimmed milk. His pas sion for “looking for theoretical understandings of empirical reality” may help explai n his long life, as well as his lengthy list of achievements. 萨缪尔森称,能与老年有成的“玛土撒拉大师威尔第比肩” 荣幸至极。他晚年多产,尤其因 , 为对循证药物学颇感兴趣。几十年来,他一直阅读《新英格兰医学杂志》 ,并且因家族遗传 之故,降胆固醇药他汀类药物推出初期就予以支持。对于脱脂乳,他也推崇备至。萨老热衷 “在经验事实中寻求理论理解” 故而长寿,故而著作等身。 ,


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